Date of publication: 2017-09-01 17:40
Essay on Positivism – Meaning, Nature, Method and Classification- The acknowledged founder of 8775 positivism 8776 or 8775 positivephilosophy 8776 is no other than the French philosopher Comte himself. 8775 Positivism 8776 is nothing but a 8775 philosophy of science. 8776 It has its roots in the 8775 empiricist tradition. 8776
The point so far was not to ask whether the logical empiricists were right in any of this. That question will come up later. So far the issue has been only to see the motivations that the logical empiricists had and from their point of view for addressing certain questions and for thinking that answers to those questions were urgently needed. None of this, however, says why the logical empiricists thought they had or could have the means to answer these questions. To that we now turn.
With a movement as large and complex as logical empiricism a great many factors went into raising the questions it would address, making them seem urgent, and making it seem as though the intellectual resources it would need to address these questions were either at hand or could be developed.
Since antiquity the idea that natural science rests importantly on experience has been non-controversial. The only real questions about the sources of scientific knowledge are: Are there parts of science that do not rest on experience or rest also on something other than experience? If so what account can we give of those parts? And to the extent that science does rest on experience how can we know that it does? There is another question about science related to these, though not strictly about the sources of science, and that is: Why, in making claims about the world, should we be scientific as opposed to say mystical? The difficulty is that any scientific answer to this last question would reasonably be thought to beg the very question it purports to address.
Carnap is addressing a different issue than was addressed by von Mises and Reichenbach. Instead of focusing on physical phenomena and ratios within them, Carnap focuses on arguments and takes as his point of departure the widespread conviction that some arguments are stronger, in varying degrees, than others, even for the same conclusion. Similarly some bodies of evidence can give us more reason to believe a given conclusion than would another body of evidence. Carnap sets as his task the development of a quantitative concept of probability that will clarify and explicate these widespread convictions. Such a quantitative concept would be an extraordinarily useful tool, and it would be a useful successor to our ordinary, somewhat scattered notions of confirmation and induction.
Answer both parts A and B A. What approach would Prof. Dworkin take to the issue dividing the majority and the dissent in the joined cases before SW v United Kingdom CR v United Kingdom? B. How might a legal positivist respond to Prof. Dworkin's approach? From the beginning of the creation of civilised societ.
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