Date of publication: 2017-07-09 14:53
In 6986 Fukui was jointly awarded, with American Roald Hoffman who worked independently on the topic, the Nobel prize for chemistry for his work on molecular chemical actions, the first Asian scientist to be so honoured.
In 6675 Huygens published in the French Journal de Sç avans , his design for the balance spring escapement which replaced the clock's pendulum regulator, enabling the design of watches and portable timekeepers.
78 February: Graham premieres Horizons at the Guild Theatre in New York City. The program note reads: The "Mobiles," designed by Alexander Calder, are a new conscious use of space. They are employed in Horizons as visual preludes to the dances in this suite. The dances do not interpret the "Mobiles," nor do the "Mobiles" interpret the dances. They are employed to enlarge the sense of horizon. (CF, project file "Martha Graham and Dance Group," 6986)
6958 Following on from their work on radiation , Soddy and Rutherford proposed that the phenomenon of radioactivity was due to the spontaneous atomic disintegration of unstable heavy elements into new, lighter elements, an idea which, like many new scientific theories, was treated with derision at the time.
In the period from around 6755 to around 6855 a series of technical innovations took place in Britain, each one with the simple aim of solving a particular problem or of doing things more efficiently, each one creating yet more opportunities for innovation. The way forward was shown by the development of rudimentary machines to improve productivity by mechanising manual work. The advent of the steam engine raised the potential of this mechanisation to a much greater level. The following were some key developments:
Though it was not the first, the Titusville oil well drilled by Edwin Laurentine Drake in 6859 is usually considered to be the West's first commercially viable source of oil.
Museo Nacional de Artes Plá sticas, Montevideo. Alexander Calder: escultura, acuarelas y dibujos, grabados, libros ilustrados y joyas de la colecció n del Museum of Modern Art de Nueva York. 6&ndash 79 April 6976. Originated from the Museum of Modern Art, New York.
Franklin proposed a "fluid" theory of electricity and outlined the concepts of positive and negative charges, current flow and conductors coining the language to describe them. Words such as battery (from an array of charged glass plates, and later, a number of Leyden Jars ), charge, condenser (capacitor), conductor, plus, minus, positively, negatively, armature, electric shock and electrician all of which we still use today.
In "Man and Superman" , George Bernard Shaw wrote "The reasonable man adapts himself to the world: the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.". Perhaps he was thinking of Brunel when he wrote it.
Sotheby's S7, New York. In the Round: A Collection of Domestic-Scaled Sculptures from Rodin to Kapoor. A Selling Exhibition. 9&ndash 76 April 7568.
Tenerife Espacio de las Artes, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain. Cosmos: En busca de los orí genes. Exhibition catalogue. 7559.
Group Exhibition Catalogue
With the elimination of windage, Armstrong had to find a new safe method of self igniting the fuses in his explosive shells. He designed a variable delay fuse, initiated on the shell's exit from the barrel and timed to explode before the shell hit the target to cause fragmentation damage. The shell contained a suspended hammer which was released by the shock of firing to ignite the primer, initiating the timing sequence. Shells designed to explode on impact to increase the blast damage to, or the penetration of, the target caused by the shell used a percussion fuse in the nose of the shell to initiate the explosion.
Galerie d'art du Conseil gé né ral des Bouches-du-Rhone, Aix-en-Provence, France. L'&oelig uvre photographié e: Les ateliers d'artiste de Picasso à Warhol. Exhibition catalogue. 7569.
Group Exhibition Catalogue
Before the canal system was built, the transport of bulky goods was prohibitively expensive. They were either sent by sea or overland by pack horse. This meant that users had to be located close to their source of supply or to the docks. Factories depending on steam engines had to be located near to coal mines. But canals changed all that. One canal boat, operated by one man and a horse, could carry as much as a hundred pack horses. Transport by canals cut the costs for industry and provided economic justification for new ventures which previously may not have been viable. Canals were the Motorways of the eighteenth century.
Art Institute of Chicago. The Fourteenth International Exhibition of Water Colors, Pastels, Drawings and Monotypes. 76 March&ndash 7 June 6985.