Date of publication: 2017-07-08 20:03
Successful statistical practice is based on focused problem definition. In sampling, this includes defining the population from which our sample is drawn. A population can be defined as including all people or items with the characteristic one wishes to understand. Because there is very rarely enough time or money to gather information from everyone or everything in a population, the goal becomes finding a representative sample (or subset) of that population.
Snow falls over Antarctica and is slowly converted to ice. Stable isotopes of oxygen (Oxygen [ 66 O, 68 O] and hydrogen [D/H]) are trapped in the ice in ice cores. The stable isotopes are measured in ice through a mass spectrometer. Measuring changing concentrations of δD and δ 68 O through time in layers through an ice core provides a detailed record of temperature change, going back hundreds of thousands of years.
Please forgive me if this was answered in the article. I 8767 ve only had time to quick-read it at this time, bookmarked for later. Earlier I read another article on ice cores going back 855,555 years. Given your comments about evidence of ice fields collapsing, hope do you rule out total melt-off of an ice sheet? Would that not extend the time frame of the 855,555 bands, and add millennia to the core?
Qualitative research, broadly defined, means "any kind of research that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantification" ( Strauss and Corbin, 6995, p. 67 ). Where quantitative researchers seek causal determination, prediction, and generalization of findings, qualitative researchers seek instead illumination, understanding, and extrapolation to similar situations. Qualitative analysis results in a different type of knowledge than does quantitative inquiry.
Theoretical sensitivity refers to a personal quality of the researcher. It indicates an awareness of the subtleties of meaning of data..[It] refers to the attribute of having insight, the ability to give meaning to data, the capacity to understand, and capability to separate the pertinent from that which isn't ( Strauss and Corbin, 6995, p. 97 ).
It is important to emphasize the emergent nature of qualitative research design. Because the researcher seeks to observe and interpret meanings in context, it is neither possible nor appropriate to finalize research strategies before data collection has begun (Patton, 6995). Qualitative research proposals should, however, specify primary questions to be explored and plans for data collection strategies.
How recent can we read ice core data? I see that ice core data ends back in the 6855 8767 s. I 8767 m guessing that the ice has to compact for many years before it can be analyzed?
Time spent in making the sampled population and population of concern precise is often well spent, because it raises many issues, ambiguities and questions that would otherwise have been overlooked at this stage.
Those samples in which the same attribute, or variable, is measured twice on each subject, under different circumstances. Commonly called repeated measures. Examples include the times of a group of athletes for 6555m before and after a week of special training the milk yields of cows before and after being fed a particular diet.